A traversal navigation library for Angular (v2+)

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Angular Traversal
When routing is not good enough
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In this demo we allow to navigate in any public Github repository. There is not specific routing implemented in the app, we just rely on the Github routing itself.

Why routing is not always good

Routing is the most common way to associate a given rendering to a given URL.
Let's think about a blog, / (the root) displays a list of the last blog posts, and each post has an URL like /2017/01/11/angular-traversal, and when the manager edits such a post, the URL is /2017/01/11/angular-traversal/edit.
Routing allows to manage that easily with 3 routes:
  • / => use the home page template,
  • /:year/:month/:postid => use the post template.
  • /:year/:month/:postid/edit => use the post edition template.

And Angular provides a very good routing implementation (see Angular Router).
This mechanism works perfectly for application-oriented websites (let's say an issue tracker for instance) or simple websites (like a blog). But, it does not fit the needs of complex websites.
Let's imagine a company website which can contain two types of pages: folders or simple pages:
  • /about is a page,
  • /news is a folder,
  • /news/welcome-our-new-president is a page,
  • /news/archives is a folder.

There is no way to enumerate all the possible routes for such a website: it would be too difficult to maintain (because the site structure will probably evolve regularly).
And more importantly, routes are restricted to the kind of content they render (we cannot use a route meant for rendering an article to render a user profile). So everytime we generate a link to a content in our app, we are supposed to know the appropriate route. That's the opposite of the web philosophy (when rendering a link in a page, our web browser does not have to know in advance if it will open another page or download a file).
That's why CMSes usually do not use routing.
We can imagine another example: we want to build an application to display a Git repository and we want to render differently the folders and the files.
We certainly want to use the current file or folder path as our current URL and as we cannot predict the repository tree structure, here again routing is not an option.
Note: and sometimes routing is the appropriate solution, but our backend service already implements it very well and we do not want to re-implement it another time in our frontend application.

Meet traversal

Traversal is another approach, it analyses the current URL from its end to its begining in order to identify the appropriate rendering (we name it the view) and the context resource we want to render.
We use @@ as a prefix to our view identifiers.
For instance, in /news/@@edit, edit is the view identifier, and /news is the context, so we know we want to display the /news content using the Edit form template.
Depending on the context, the same view identifier might be associated to a specific view implementation. For instance we probably have two different forms to edit a folder and to edit a page, but their respective URLs will both end with /@@edit.
The default view is view, so /about is equivalent to /about/@@view.

When do we use traversal

  • when the site/app navigation tree is not predicatable and can evolve,
  • when we trust our backend to implement the navigation tree properly, and we do not want to re-implement it manually in the frontend.

Angular Traversal features

Angular Traversal allows to associate a component to a view name for a given context marker, like:
traverser.addView('view', 'Folder', FolderViewComponent);
traverser.addView('view', 'Document', DocumentViewComponent);
traverser.addView('edit', 'Folder', FolderEditComponent);
traverser.addView('edit', 'Document', DocumentEditComponent);
traverser.addView('history', '*', HistoryComponent);

How do we insert a view in our app?

Just like the router, we specify the view rendering location using an outlet directive:

How do we create navigation links?

We create navigation links using a traverse directive:
<a traverseTo="/news/2017/happy-new-year/@@edit">Edit</a>

How the traverser will get the context from the current path?

The context is obtained from a resolver which takes the context path (e.g. /news/2017/happy-new-year) as parameter and returns the corresponding context as an object.
In many cases, we will retrieve this context from a backend, so Angular Traversal provides a basic HTTP resolver which just makes a GET using the context path and convert the resulting JSON into an object. But we can provide a custom resolver implementation easily.
The traverser will give this context object to the view component so it can be rendered.
If we traverse to a view without context (like @@login), we will not re-call the resolver, we will just keep the current context and change the view.

How the traverser knows which component to use?

As mentionned earlier, the view mapping is based on a context marker (in our example, we have 'Document' and 'Folder'). It is a string computed from the context object using a custom marker class.
For instance, if we want to associate a view according the content-type, assuming the backend JSON response contains a type property, our marker class would do:
return context.type;

And '*' allows to match any context.
Note: if our marker returns an array of strings, the traverser will pick the first item of the array which matches a view definition.


The view component will render the main content.
But our application might also involves other blocks in the page, like a header, a side panel, a menu, etc.
Most of those blocks are the same, whatever is the current context, like our header will probably be rendered using the same component on all the pages of the app, even tough its content might vary depending on the context (in that case, we can subscribe to our traverse service to get the context and apply the needed changes).
But some blocks might be totally different from one context to another. Let's say we have a collapsible side panel providing extra action or detail information about the current context, when we are viewing a user account, we want to display the user preferences form, but when viewing a document, we want to display the modification history of this document. We do not want to implement those 2 cases in the same component. Of course we could manage it at the parent template level with *ngIf="context.type==='user'", etc., but it is not scalable, hard to maintain and pretty ugly.
In that case, we can render our detail panel with a tile. Tile directives allow to define blocks in our parent template, each title has a name:
<traverser-tile name="detail-panel"></traverser-tile>

And for each tile, we can declare components for our different possible context types:
this.traverser.addTile('detail-panel', 'user', UserPreferencesComponent);
this.traverser.addTile('detail-panel', 'document', DocumentHistoryComponent);

And when we traverse to a given context, the relevant component will be used to render the tile.
Note: noUpdateOnTraverse attribute allows to manage the tile content independantly from traversing. We can load the context we want programmatically by calling:
this.traverser.loadTile('details', '/news/the-rise-of-skywalker');

Note: an interesting aspect of the tile principle is the tile directive can be located in any template, and the corresponding module will not have any dependency with the component providing the tile content.
It is possible to remove the component from the tile using emptyTile method:

Traversing cycle

| Step | How | Details | | ----------- | --------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | | before | beforeTraverse observable | By subscribing to beforeTraverse, we get a Subject and the requested path. If we send false to the subject, traversing is cancelled. | | resolve | Resolver class | Resolver class takes the requested path and obtain corresponding object that will become the current context. | | mark | Marker class | Marker class takes the context object and returns its type. | | instanciate | Traverser service | According context type and requested view, traverser finds the corresponding component and instantiates it. |


Create a view component

A valid view component must have a context property, it must inject the Traverser service, and subscribe to it to get the context:
import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { Traverser } from 'angular-traversal';

    selector: 'app-folder-edit',
    templateUrl: './folder-edit.component.html',
    styleUrls: ['./folder-edit.component.css'],
export class FolderEditComponent implements OnInit {
    private context: any;

    constructor(private traverser: Traverser) {}

    ngOnInit() { => {
            this.context = target.context;

Warning: before Angular 9, it must be declared in the app module in both declarations and entryComponents.

Implement a marker

A valid marker must extend the Marker class and implent a mark method returning a string.
import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { Marker } from 'angular-traversal';

export class TypeMarker extends Marker {
    mark(context: any): string {
        return context['@type'];

Define a resolver

A valid resolver must extend the Resolver class and implement a resolve method returning an observable.
See BasicHttpResolver as example.

Register views

We register view using the Traverser's addView method. It can be done anywhere, but our main AppComponent class seems like a good place.
import { Component } from '@angular/core';
import { Traverser } from 'angular-traversal';
import { EditComponent } from './edit/edit.component';
import { FolderEditComponent } from './folder-edit/folder-edit.component';
import { HistoryComponent } from './history/history.component';

    selector: 'app-root',
    templateUrl: './app.component.html',
    styleUrls: ['./app.component.css'],
export class AppComponent {
    title = 'app works!';

    constructor(traverser: Traverser) {
        traverser.addView('edit', 'Folder', FolderEditComponent);
        traverser.addView('edit', 'Document', EditComponent);
        traverser.addView('history', '*', HistoryComponent);

Insert the outlet and the links

To insert the view rendering:

To create navigation links:
<a traverseTo="/news/2017/happy-new-year/@@edit">Edit</a>

Declare everything in the module

In declarations we need all our view components, (and they also need to be mentionned in entryComponents before Angular 9).
In 'imports', we need to import the TraversalModule.
In providers, we need:
  • a resolver (if we use BasicHttpResolver, we also need the BACKEND_BASE_URL value),
  • our custom marker.

import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { FormsModule } from '@angular/forms';
import { HttpClientModule } from '@angular/common/http';

import { TraversalModule } from 'angular-traversal';
import { Resolver } from 'angular-traversal';
import { Marker } from 'angular-traversal';
import { BasicHttpResolver, BACKEND_BASE_URL } from 'angular-traversal';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { EditComponent } from './edit/edit.component';
import { HistoryComponent } from './list/list.component';
import { FolderEditComponent } from './folder-edit/folder-edit.component';
import { TypeMarker } from './type-marker';

    declarations: [AppComponent, EditComponent, HistoryComponent, FolderEditComponent],
    imports: [BrowserModule, FormsModule, HttpClientModule, TraversalModule],
    providers: [
        { provide: Resolver, useClass: BasicHttpResolver },
        { provide: BACKEND_BASE_URL, useValue: '' },
        { provide: Marker, useClass: TypeMarker },
    bootstrap: [AppComponent],
export class AppModule {}

Path normalizer

The main use case is to call a REST backend based on the current path. For instance, by calling http://localhost:4200/guillotinaweb/angular-traversal/contents the traverser will call and use the result as the view context.
But, if the result contains some path to other resources, in most cases they will be provided as full URL, like in our case with the GitHub API, the folder items are like that:
    "name": "",
    "url": "",

So if we want to use this url to create a traversable link, we need to shorten it:
<a traverseTo="/guillotinaweb/angular-traversal/contents/"></a>

Of course, our resolver could support full pathes, but then the displayed location in the browser would be:
which does work, but is pretty ugly.
To avoid that, we can implement a Normalizer:
import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { Normalizer } from 'angular-traversal';

export class FullPathNormalizer extends Normalizer {
    normalize(path): string {
        if (path.startsWith('')) {
            return path.slice(28);
        } else {
            return path;

and provide it in the module:
import { Normalizer } from 'angular-traversal';
import { FullPathNormalizer } from './my-normalizer';
  { provide: Normalizer, useClass: FullPathNormalizer },

Using traversal and routing together

Traversing can be used with regular routing.
Some pathes our application can be managed with routing (example: /login, /profile, etc.), and others with traversing (like: /files/**).
/files will be a route and its component will contain the outlet with a special input:

Note: with noAutoTraverse, we will not traverse to the new location everytime the location changes.
In our app module, we will declare our prefix:
{ provide: NAVIGATION_PREFIX, useValue: new BehaviorSubject('/files') },

And in order to make sure the transition between the 2 modes work fine, we will have to do (in app.component for example): => event instanceof NavigationEnd)).subscribe(() => {

Note: if we want to use routing as a secondary system within traversal, we can make our resolver and marker aware of routes, example:
resolve(path: string, view: string, queryString: string): Observable<Something|{isRoute: boolean}> {
    const level1 = path.split('/')[1] || '';
    if (!level1 || MY_SUB_ROUTES.includes(level1)) {
        return of({isRoute: true});
    } else {
        return this.somethingService.get(path);

mark(context: any): string {
    if (context.isRoute) {
        return 'routing';
    } else {

then declare a view for the fake routing type:
traverser.addView('view', 'routing', DefaultRouterComponent);

(DefaultRouterComponent will contain the <router-outlet>)

Lazy loading

Note: only supported since Angular 9
Similarly to Angular Router, in order to reduce our main bundle size, we can lazy load the view components.
Let's say we have a specific view involving a lot of code and most users won't use it. We create this component in its own module, and we declare the views in a static property named traverserViews:
    imports: [],
    exports: [HugeDashboardComponent],
    declarations: [HugeDashboardComponent],
    providers: [],
export class HugeDashboardModule {
    static traverserViews: ViewMapping[] = [{ name: 'dashboard', components: { Folder: HugeDashboardComponent } }];
    static traverserTiles: ViewMapping[] = [
        { name: 'dashboard-sidepanel', components: { Folder: HugeDashboardDetailsComponent } },

Lazy views and/or tiles are declared like this:
traverser.addLazyView('dashboard', 'Folder', () =>
    import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule)
traverser.addLazyTile('dashboard-sidepanel', 'Folder', () =>
    import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule)

If a lazy-loaded module declares several views, it might be annoying to declare them all in our app component:
traverser.addLazyView('project-dashboard', 'Folder', () =>
    import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule)
traverser.addLazyView('system-dashboard', 'Folder', () =>
    import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule)
traverser.addLazyView('alerts', 'Folder', () => import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule));

To avoid that, we can use a common prefix for all our views:
export class HugeDashboardModule {
    static traverserViews: ViewMapping[] = [
        { name: 'dashboard/project', components: { Folder: HugeDashboard1Component } },
        { name: 'dashboard/system', components: { Folder: HugeDashboard2Component } },
        { name: 'dashboard/alerts', components: { Folder: HugeDashboard3Component } },

And then we just have to declare the view prefix in app component to trigger lazy loading when any of these views is requested:
traverser.addLazyView('dashboard', 'Folder', () =>
    import('./folder-dashboard/module').then((m) => m.HugeDashboardModule)


beforeTraverse observable allow to run some code before traversing. It provides a boolean Subject and the requested path.
This subject must be used to return true or false, if false, traversing is cancelled.
this.traverser.beforeTraverse.subscribe(([canTraverse, path]) => {
    if (formIsNotValid) {
        alert('Please, fill the form before leaving the page.');;
    } else {;